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Global Problems and Education System

Eduard EVREINOV
Ph.D., Grand Ph.D., Prof.

The President of the European Academy of Informatization,
The President of the International Informatization Center,
The President of the World Information Distributed University and
World Distributed University,
The Vice-President of the International Informatization Academy
The Honorary President of the Newport University CED;
The Grand Master of the World Order “Science. Education. Culture”

Introduction

Last years alongside with the decision of applied and fundamental problems interest to statement and the formulation of a class of very complex and vital problems which have received the name ” Global Problems ” began to be shown. About existence of such problems and utility of their decision for mankind it was known for a long time. For the first time academician Semenov has approached to allocation of similar problems in a special category with the purpose of their decision in the beginning of the fiftieth years. It has named them ” Wild Problems ” as on its preliminary researches for their decision at that time it has not appeared available neither mathematical methods, nor computing means. It also has come out with the assumption, that for the decision of such problems it is necessary to search for essentially new ideas of processing of the information. Under offer Semenov in 1959 for the decision of these problems in Siberian Branch AN of the USSR in structure of Institute of Mathematics the branch of perspective researches for creation of computing systems of ultrahigh productivity and computing methods has been formed. The created Problem Advice (Supervisors of studies: academician Sobolev S.L. and the Winner of the Lenin Premium Evreinov E.V.) has discussed the basic problems of creation of computing systems with participation of academicians and visible scientists and has approved the plan of perspective researches for the ten years’ period. By the end of this period it was possible to solve theoretically and to confirm experimentally an opportunity of creation of computing methods, algorithms and systems for the decision of «Wild Problems “.

These works have appeared the first scientific researches which have opened essentially new ways for the decision of problems of ultrahigh complexity. They have begun creation of parallel methods and means of processing of the information, received through 20 – 30 years a wide circulation

Published first clauses, the monograph, magazine both the lead first seminars and conferences promoted creation of hundreds centers and scientific schools in many countries of the world. The offered concepts, terms and words began to be used widely in the scientific literature. To them concern: parallel processing of the information, parallel methods of calculations and the algorithms, the parallel programming, the distributed computing systems, homogeneous parallel computing systems, computing structures, computing environments and others. As a result of researches it was found out, that parallel processing of the information can and should be applied in all spheres of activity of a society, and process of transition to use of such technologies began to refer to as information. In the practical plan, owing to use of the theory of parallel calculations, computing systems from ten thousand in parallel working computers with the productivity proportional to number of machines are created and system engineering from one million computers are conducted.

Structural cellular models of calculations have appeared convenient for construction of communication systems with high throughput, power systems of the big capacity, scale man -machine systems of various purpose, planetary scientific institutes. An example of last type of systems was creation of the International Academy of Informatization on in the General Consultative state in structure of the United Nations. This Academy is constructed on the basis of information-cellular model which has been offered by Professors Usvishin I.I. and Evreinov E.V. It consists of the big number of the independent national academies incorporated by cellular information communications.

The saved up experience of application of structural model of parallel calculations for the decision of large economic and scientific problems has allowed to draw a conclusion that the first important step in transition from fundamental problems to a class of Global Problems (Wild Problems) is made.

This conclusion has been received after comprehension of results of the decision of one of three major problems of cybernetics: creation of system of potentially unlimited productivity for the decision of global problems.

Using such system, it is possible to solve any problem if for it it is possible to give the strict description and to find corresponding methods and algorithms of calculations. In other words, if the problem is formulated in the form of a computing problem such problem can be solved by means of the parallel computing system having potentially unlimited productivity. It has appeared, that difficulties of the decision of Global Problems are connected from them the formulation and development of methods of the decision.

This process is creative, it does not manage while to be formalized and it is realized by the person. Last years in connection with activity of the United Nations there were problems which under their appendix to objects have global character. Here far incomplete list of such problems: Human rights, the International Terrorism, the Food programme, the Environment, Steady Development, Global and National Safety and others.

These problems are not solved yet and, despite of significant expenses of human and material resources, are far from their decision.

It leads to the offer on necessity to pay special attention on system of preparation of experts for the decision of Global Problems.

At the analysis of experience of the successful decision of the first global problem led creation of the theory of construction of parallel systems unlimited (potentially) of productivity, it was found out, that leading experts have been compelled to get fundamental preparation not in one narrow area, and in many fields of knowledge.

Thus it was found out, the more extensively area of fundamental preparation of the expert, so much the better for him to expect his successes in the decision of a problem, certainly in a combination to natural abilities more.

With participation of representatives of Secretary of the United Nations the created special Committee has considered and has approved the program and a technique of preparation of experts of the top skills for the decision of Global Problems.

On the basis of these materials under a scientific management of the author the Global Education systems which feature is introduction of the program of fundamental preparation of the expert in very wide field of knowledge with award of the highest scientific degree in the world has been developed:   Grand Doctor of Philosophy.

Presence and realization of the Global Education system, an opportunity of application in practice of parallel computing systems create real preconditions for the successful decision of global problems.

Global Problems.

Global Problems are characterized by several important properties. The decision of any of them opens new ways for development of a society and leads to statement of a lot of new fundamental problems which in turn generate applied with the important practical appendix. Global problems are characterized by ultrahigh complexity and represent almost insuperable difficulties on a way of their decision. For example, three major problems of cybernetics put almost fifty years ago about construction of artificial self-generating systems, adaptive systems and systems with unlimited productivity have appeared so difficult, that only last from them has received the theoretical decision with practical acknowledgement. Difficult for the practical decision global problems of the United Nations are same. For the decision of global problems experts of such high qualification which cannot be provided by traditional education systems are required. Have not received also due development mathematical and means, which theory of construction it has been developed specially for the decision of Global Problems. Than basic difficulties which arise at the decision of global problems speak? It is the easier for presenting at transition to their computing models. Each problem can be estimated by quantity of units of the information and number of carried out operations for its decision. On these parameters the problems belonging to type of applied, fundamental or global problems, can reach any, as much as high complexity. The basic difference consists in character of information connectivity of problems, in other words, in an opportunity of representation of a solved problem in the form of a set of more simple independent problems. According to this criterion the applied problem can be presented by a set untied among them more simple problems.

The fundamental problem concerns to a class of weak-coupled problems for which exist mathematical methods of elimination of these links. The global problem concerns to a class of strongly-coupled problems for which there are no methods of elimination of links between problems. It is interesting to note, that from philosophical positions it was necessary to expect occurrence of problems with such properties, otherwise there would be possible to cognize all laws of the world surrounding us for a final interval of time that contradicts the saved up experience in knowledge of laws of the nature. From here follows, that methods of elimination of communications in strongly-coupled problems will be never found, and each such problem needs to be considered as a unit. With growth of quantity of the information the volume of calculations essentially increases, as predetermines use of systems with potentially beyond all bounds productivity. Hence, any global problem will demand obligatory application of systems with potentially unlimited productivity. At formal representation of a global problem in the form of a computing problem there is a question on admissible complexity of the description of statement of a global problem. If such description will not have the certain laws with growth of volume of the information of a problem it will have as is wished the greater length and it will appear excessive for the director of a problem. The conclusion from here follows, that the description of global problems should have the structural nature. Really, as in the description of a problem the basic volume borrows the description of the initial information, instead of the description of algorithm of the decision it is a question of the structured representation of initial data. There was, that any global problem shown to a computing problem, can be presented in the form of cellular (cellular) structure with the regular information links set for each cell with the nearest neighbors.

Computing systems for the decision of Global Problems.

Two directions in construction of computing means are known only:

1. Creation of machines with consecutive in time performance of operations;

2. System engineering with parallel processing the information.

Long-term attempts of many researchers to find other ways have appeared unsuccessful. Increase of productivity of the machine with consecutive performance of operations depends on speed of elements of the machine and an opportunity of reduction of time of distribution of signals in the machine. At validity of the statement about finiteness of speed of light there is a theoretical limit in increase of productivity of the machine with consecutive performance of operations. It means that the first way cannot be used for construction of computers with potentially unlimited productivity. For overcoming this basic difficulty by the author the fundamental concept of parallel performance of operations due to increase in number of in parallel working elements has been offered at simultaneous decrease in their clock frequency. It has appeared, that basic restrictions both probably theoretically in this case are removed and practically to create systems with as much as high efficiency. In a basis of construction of computers with consecutive performance of operations the Model of the Calculator is used. Parallel systems are under construction on principles of Model of Collective of Calculators. For the first time this model has been offered by the author in the fiftieth years of the last century for the description mathematical and means which allow solving Global Problems

The model of the Calculator describes consecutive algorithm of the decision of a computing problem at a formal level. Principles of Consecutive performance of the operations, the fixed (unchangeable) structure and Heterogeneity of elements and communications are put in a basis of this model between them. The model of the Calculator is investigated by A.Tjuring, S.Klini, and A.A.Markov and, with reference to computers a background Neumann (a principle of program management). In model of Collective of Calculators opposite principles are used: Parallel performance of operations, Variable structure, Uniformity of elements and communications between them. The model of Collective of calculators is in a sense generalization of model of the Calculator: calculators are its elements. The description of development of systems of calculations with transition from simple forms to more complex systems at preservation of these forms and the organization of their interaction on new principles and reception of new qualities is in the full consent with philosophical views on development. Use of Model of Collective of Calculators for the decision of problems allows creating systems with theoretically unlimited productivity, possessing the survivability, the escalating of productivity showing minimal requirements to their realization supposing to a simple way. The opportunity of the decision theoretically any computing problem by means of model of the calculator is defined by algorithmic universality.

The algorithm of the decision and the information on a problem are set by means of some description, keeping on the special carrier with an opportunity of its change during calculations. The structure of the calculator at transition from a problem to a problem remains constant. In model of collective of calculators for each problem the block diagram of the decision is set, i.e. structural universality is realized.

Therefore use in this model of principles of changeability and uniformity alongside with a principle of parallelism is defining at the decision complex and over challenges. At the decision of problems by means of model of collective of calculators it is necessary to provide an opportunity of information interchange between all calculators during the decision of a problem. Researches have shown, that there are only two types of regular mass information interchanges in systems with potentially unlimited number of elements: Transmitting and Conveyor Exchanges. In the first type by a transferring element any can be certain, and the others in this scheme of an exchange will be accepting. In the second type each element is both transferring and accepting within the limits of the limited distance between the next elements. For management of process of calculations the effective schemes providing management by one fixed calculator, the Moved calculator and the Collective calculator are found in model of collective of calculators with use of the minimal set of operations. It is possible to allocate some classes of models of collective of calculators: the distributed computing systems, the concentrated parallel computing systems, micro computing structures and environments. By a prototype of the first type of systems the collective of the calculators dispersed in extensive territory and a uniform problem borrowed by the decision and having opportunity to use a communication facility for information interchange can be used. Calculators are placed on sources of the information, make local calculations and communicate on liaison channels in conditions of strong influence of delay of signals. For elimination of this influence it was possible to find the effective algorithms, based overlapping of time of processing and an exchange. The distributed computing systems allow to unite all the computing resources dispersed in given territory, in a uniform resource and to use it for the decision of one complex or sets of problems of smaller complexity.

This model can be applied to construction of the computer network. In this case, besides independent problems it will be possible to solve and weak -coupled links. The model of the concentrated collective of calculators describes process of calculations with an arrangement of calculators in immediate proximity from each other. In this case it is possible to neglect delay of messages in liaison channels. This model underlies construction of homogeneous computing systems which are effective means for the decision of all types of problems, including and strongly -coupled global problems. On this basis, the computing systems consisting of ten thousand of computers are already created, and systems with one million machines are projected. The model of the distributed collective of calculators is the top border of every possible models of computing means. As elements this model can be built in and models of the distributed collective of calculators. The repeated investment does not lead to an output from a class of the distributed computing systems. Its elementary element can be the homogeneous system consisting in business from one calculator. Also the bottom border of complexity of models of collective of calculators has been certain. If to spend simplification of the calculator up to its data to some elementary automatic device at which use for construction of model of collective of calculators principles of parallelism are kept, changeability, uniformity the element which realizes the minimal full set of automatic and connecting functions with program switching on their performance will be as a result received. Set of such elements in the form of trellised or cellular structures has received the name of the computing environment. Environment (computing) is the bottom border of every possible models of computing means. On its basis by adjustment of its elements it is possible to construct any computer.

This model allows solving a problem of mass production of computing means with use of technology of the continuous automated manufacturing. Originality of the decision is concluded that here for the first time is paid attention to a role of connections in construction of complex automatic devices and surprising similarity to the cellular structure which has received a wide circulation in the nature. In the developed theory of computing environments the special section devoted to cellular computing fabrics and micro structural modeling of automatic links in fabrics is entered. In practice with productivity over billion operations a second.

Parallel methods of the calculations, parallel algorithms and the languages, parallel programming computing structures are applied to the decision of Global Problems. For application of model of Collective of Calculators in practice there was a need for development of essentially new mathematical means of the decision of problems. As in the mathematician the idea of consecutive calculations there were no ready results of which it would be possible to take advantage for parallel calculations at that time was obviously or implicitly used. On an example of construction of the theory of computing means with unlimited productivity feature in the approach to the decision of this global problem was found out. It has appeared, that at an initial stage it is impossible to involve other researchers in statement and the decision of separate problems of this problem

It is necessary to consider a problem as a unit and to solve all forces of one researcher which should possess knowledge in many areas scientific and practical activities. The author for the first time had been developed methods of calculations, algorithms, languages and means of the programming, received the name “parallel”. In the beginning parallel methods of calculations of problems have been developed: linear algebra, extreme problems, the ordinary differential equations, problems of integration and differentiation, boundary problems for linear and nonlinear systems, problems of modeling, likelihood and statistical problems, problems of processing of greater files of the information and many other things. Effective parallel methods of the decision of all classes of problems of calculus mathematics have practically been developed. For all these methods parallel algorithms with use of parallel language on the basis of which there were developed parallel programs have been offered. As a result of the lead researches it is possible to specify two possible approaches to development of parallel methods of calculations: use of existing methods with their subsequent transformation in parallel, development of new methods in which specificity of model of collective of calculators is considered. Potential opportunities of development of such methods follow from features of representation of any links in the form of set of the subtasks connected among them. Splitting of a challenge by regular way on identical on volume of calculations of a subtask underlies large-scale splitting (paralleling) not algorithm that is inexpedient to do, and problem. The initial problem, which main component is a data set, is cut on identical parts with preservation between them information communications. Information communications between subtasks are regular; therefore it is possible to organize parallel information interchanges by means of transmitting and conveyor exchanges.

Paralleling problem (its data) underlies validity of the hypothesis stated by the author, about paralleling any challenge for its effective decision. Till now nobody was possible to anybody to deny this hypothesis. For construction of parallel algorithm it is necessary to consider, that paralleling it is spent for challenges, it is not necessary to resort without need to the maximal parallelism, process of paralleling needs to be spent from top to down, since large parts of a problem. The main attention is given revealing of cycles and distribution of files of the information on parallel branches. Parallel languages differ from known languages presence of means of the description of exchange interactions. With the purpose of finding-out of scopes of the offered classes of computing systems problems of management by economy in scales of the country, scientific and technical problems, problems of management of complex objects, problems of structural modeling and designing have been investigated. As a result of the lead researches it has been established, that the systems constructed on the basis of model of collective of calculators, can be effectively used everywhere and are represented necessary, and while unique, means for the decision of Global Problems. The lead analysis of need of a society in the decision of various classes of problems, tendencies of development of a communication facility and the computer facilities, the forecasts which have developed by then on evolution of a society has allowed the author to enter the term ” Informatization of the Society “, as a following step in the description of development by such terms as Electrification, Industrialization, Automation and others

This term has been extended in many countries. That the decision of global problems and universal application of computing systems, but a basis of model of collective of calculators, gets exclusive importance during this period is important.

Informatization of the Society.

Necessity of Informatization is caused by becoming aggravated contradictions between limitations of natural resources both available ways and means of satisfaction of growing needs of a society. The society requires reception of the new information during knowledge of the world surrounding us. In process of penetration into its depths it is required to solve more and more challenges: applied, fundamental and global problems. Importance of realization of computing means with continuously increasing productivity, constructed on the basis of model of collective of calculators from here follows. The important problem is manufacture of the information with the purpose of creation of new high technology branches of facilities for release of cheap production in view of individual interests of consumers. Branches should be power-hungry, material-, labor savings. It is required to develop the new technologies, new materials, intellectual tools for them. It is connected with application of high-efficiency systems. A variety in manufacture and distribution of production attracts increase of streams of the information and volumes of calculations that leads to mass use of means of computer facilities and communication in sphere of consumption, i.e. the distributed computing systems. In these conditions almost all population of the developed country passes in sphere of manufacture and consumption of the information. The information becomes the major strategic resource of a society, in many respects defining its opportunities and abilities to the further development. The technical basis of reception and processing of the information is formed with computing systems with potentially increased productivity

The information as a product does not reduce at simultaneous consumption by many users, simplicity and speed of delivery to significant distances, opportunities of use of universal remedies of processing. Manufacture and consumption form uniform process which is realized in the structures combining means of processing and information interchange. These features of the information allow creating the special structures named by the author «the Distributed Enterprises, the Distributed Establishments, and the Distributed Institutes «depending on their purpose. They are easily realized on the basis of the distributed computing systems. It is possible to assume, that at information of a society such systems can be united in the uniform distributed computing system which will capture all kinds of human activity, including and formation.

Education systems.

In 60th years of the last century at research of an opportunity of construction of the automatic device with unlimited productivity the author has come to conclusion, that for the decision very much challenges, it is necessary to have a profound knowledge in many areas of a science and techniques, philosophy, the literature, grammar, history, art, painting, economy, etc. Therefore the education system should be aimed at fundamental preparation of experts in many areas, instead of be limited to fundamental studying of narrow branch of knowledge. The confidence of necessity of such preparation still has more got stronger in 90th years of the last century when to the author it was necessary to borrow along with many outstanding scientists formation of the International Academy of Informatization (IIA). It is the unique academy of sciences which has received at that time the General Consultative state with economic and social Advice of the United Nations. Those years the General Secretary of the United Nations and Academy (IIA) had been formed under direction of the author the Joint Commission by Formation where assistants to the Secretary General of the United Nations – Joseph V. Reed have entered, Ji. Chaozhu. This Commission has developed offers and recommendations for introduction of system of preparation and two-level certification of scientific all countries of the world according to the Declaration of Human rights on the Formation, the accepted United Nations. The offered system of certification of experts of the top skills for the decision of global problems has been patented, and initial substantive provisions of this system have been stated in the several clauses published in the international magazine of Switzerland «the Geneva News «in 1996-1997. Materials about structure of this education system for experts of the top skills have found reflection in publications of the official governmental newspaper «Moniteur belge «in 1999-2002

Global System of Education.

Now has this education system is in an initial phase of the development. Since 1999 for 2004 in it have had training preparation and certification over 1900 doctors and grandee of doctors of philosophy. Some universities and branches of universities in many countries of the world are created on a nongovernmental basis. This system is named by Global System of Education unlike existing education systems in East and the Western Europe, America. Here the word “global” specifies the purposes of this education system: to prepare for experts of the top skills for the decision of global problems. At the same time this name reflects also other party: an opportunity of its use as some reference estimation of an educational level for any country of the world according to the Declaration of the United Nations on Human rights on Formation. Its diplomas also can be used as a basis at an estimation of diplomas and certificates of the various countries with the purpose of definition of their equivalence. In this case it is not necessary to establish equivalence of diplomas and certificates of each country with everyone, which would lead to greater expenses. Here will enough define equivalence of a global education system and each of the countries of the world that is reduced to construction no more than 200 standards on number of the countries. The global education system (GSE) is conceived as system which does not enter any contradictions with existing education systems: the USA, European, Russian, etc. GSE has no crossings with them.

The GSE is the world nongovernmental system. It does not enter any conflicts to educational associations. The GSE is guided, first of all, by attraction in its orbit of outstanding persons of the world in sphere of a science, formation, culture, art. Each outstanding person has the right to participate and even to create the nominal educational structures in The GSE Imperatives – the person, family, an information society (civil). In The GSE

the scheme of preparation of experts under the scheme “From above-downwards” is accepted. In the beginning conditions for search of the outstanding persons participated in the decision of global problems are created. Then preparation Grand of Doctors of Philosophy, then Doctors of Philosophy is carried out with their help, at last, MS, etc. it is natural, that any independent system should be full and contain a full set of the structural elements coordinated with each other. The main structural element The GSE

is the International (European) Academy of sciences.

The international Academy of sciences (IAS or EAS) is formed of outstanding persons of the world community with representation one academician from one million inhabitants of the country. Each representative is put forward by the scientific organizations of the country (national Academies of sciences, Universities, other organizations, scientific and educational), and then selected the Senate of Academy for lifelong term. Material maintenance of activity of this representative is carried out due to the organizations which have offered this nominee. The purpose of Academy is discussion and selection of global problems which decision represents the greatest importance for mankind. The academy participates in construction of educational structures and formation of programs for preparation of experts for the decision of global problems.

Preparation of  Grand Doctors and Doctors of Philosophy is carried out by the World Information Distributed University (WIDU) which and actually is distributed and consists of independent national universities and branches with names: WIDU – Russia, WIDU – Germany, WIDU – Spain, WIDU – Canada, etc. the Scientific degree of  Grand Doctor of Philosophy can be awarded to the Doctor of Philosophy who is taken part the decision of a global problem, 100 scientific works having more, 3 and more pornographies and 10-20 doctors of philosophy taken part preparation. The need of a society for Grand Doctors of Philosophy can be estimated parity: one Grand doctor of philosophy on 10 thousand people and one Doctor of philosophy on 1 thousand people.

In comparison with the most known and well proved universities of world WIDU has a number of advantages: 1. Any University does not prepare and has no opportunity to prepare Grand Doctors of Philosophy. 2. WIDU has the distributed structure. Branches WIDU in the form of universities, academies, institutes, centers of science are already created in many countries. Process of their organization proceeds as on territorial and functional levels. 3. Preparation of experts can be spent in the most various forms: from auditorium employment, before independent preparation, individual training in-home with attraction of highly skilled professors (Grand Doctors of Philosophy) is supposed also as agreed. The big attention is given to remote training. Important difference WIDU is granting an opportunity to be engaged and defend the dissertation on the native language 4. The leading role in preparation of the future highly skilled experts is played by professorial structure of University. In WIDU the defining role belongs to the professors having a degree of  Grand Doctor of Philosophy. 5. More perfect credit system in comparison with known Universities operates. 6. The full credit for training for very long term can be given.

The credit is given by the Board of guardians of University. For preparation of the doctor of philosophy 120 credits (3 credits correspond to one subject) grandee of the doctor of philosophy – 100 credits, professors – 100 credits are established. In addition by the Senate of University 6 credits from 10 on organizational expenses can be represented. At selection of candidates for training in doctoral studies the professorial structure of University is guided by the experts having wide experience in the decision of economic, organizational and scientific problems, i.e. the experts potentially prepared for the decision of global problems for construction of an information society. At the same time the significant place for preparation of young experts with their attraction to participation in work above projects in interests of the European Commission and the Transnational Companies is allocated. The first doctorates WIDU, as a rule, had already national degrees corresponding a level of the doctor of philosophy. By preparation on a degree of the doctor of philosophy they studied a number of new disciplines which are included into the program of training of the expert for the decision of global problems. To everyone doctorate from the moment of transfer in WIDU the doctor’s committee from 5-9 Grand doctors of philosophy was appointed, and 2 or 3 from them were representatives of committee from other countries.

After studying a complex of disciplines and representation of the dissertation in the form of the monograph doctorate passed public protection with use of means the Internet, come to the end solemn ceremony of delivery of the diploma of the doctor of philosophy on one of sessions of conference of professors WIDU. Now requirements to protection on a degree of the doctor of philosophy have essentially increased. The Science Is required publishing necessarily the basic results in editions WIDU in the form of monograph and clauses in magazine “Science. Formation. Culture “. For representation of doctors of philosophy and Grand doctors of philosophy to the world community is entered the International Electronic Register. In the register brief data on doctors and Grand doctors of philosophy and scientific biographies are located. For registration of each new doctor or grandee of the doctor of philosophy are used four documents: the application, the application for credits, the scientific biography, the decision of doctor’s committee on award of a degree. All other materials connected with protection of the dissertation, remain in archives of universities and the branches which are a part the WIDU. Especially favorable factor by preparation of doctors and grand doctors of philosophy became introduction of the credit which has received the name “intellectual”. If over the best universities of the world are dominated by monetary credit system in which calculation is made by a payment of money to university in case of the intellectual credit the university actually never receives a material payment. The doctor or Grand doctor of philosophy returns the credit to a society by means of publications of monographs, clauses, participation in work of doctor’s committees on public principles, etc.

This most creates such conditions at which any presented person can have an opportunity to have training preparation at university practically free of charge. Presence of credits allows becoming in one number with the best universities of the world which on the first place has a cost of training in monetary credits. In a society of doctors and grandee of doctors of philosophy on global problems allows passing 10 presences to preparation of experts with higher education in the field of global problems.

The World Distributed University (WDU) just also intends for preparation M. S. (the master of Sciences on global problems. This university also has the distributed structure. National WDU join as branches in the World Distributed University.

The international Association of Universities and Higher educational Institutions

Greater opportunities for participation of existing Universities in preparation M. S., Ph. D., Grand Ph. D. (the master of Sciences the doctor of philosophy and Grand doctor of philosophy) open in connection with creation and functioning of the International (European) Association of Universities and Higher educational Institutions (EAUHS). This Association has for an object to unite universities and other scientific institutes, wishing to join the program of preparation of experts in the field of global problems. While it is unique Association which can allocate with powers and spend accreditation of Universities with the right of preparation of doctors and Grand doctors of philosophy in the field of global problems

The international Association of the High Certifying commissions and Committees

Within the limits of GES is created Association of the High Certifying commissions and Committees In this association not state committees and the commissions though inclusion in its structure of the State Committees and the Commissions is supposed enter. The international Universities of Global Problems. For preparation PhD and Grand PhD It is necessary to change representation about type of educational structure and bases of its functioning. The standard form of structure for preparation of experts with higher education (M.S.) and experts for the decision of applied and fundamental problems (PhD.) the University is. Many modern universities are huge organizations. They consist of various schools, colleges, institutes, faculties, the centers. In them study tens thousand students and doctorates. Universities prepare for experts in the most various fields of knowledge and spend for their preparation down to several billion dollars a year. Value of such universities for preparation of the experts aimed at the decision applied and partly of fundamental problems is difficult for overestimating. Quite probably, those universities can incur preparation and experts for the decision of Global Problems. But while universities continue to let out experts for the decision of private problems In these conditions the author had been offered new under the form and the maintenance new type of educational structure «International University of Global Problems “.

In a basis of construction of University of Global Problems is the concept of «the Distributed Enterprise or   Distributed Establishment « The distributed enterprise represents set of the workplaces distributed in space, and connected among themselves means of information interchange. The Workplace represents computer system for processing, storages and an exchange of the information adapted for needs of the individual user (person) and is its personal property. The system of information interchange is the general property of users or the property of any owner or joint-stock company. As such system of information interchange the computer network, type the Internet, adapted for realization of individual exchanges or the distributed computing system effectively realizing both group exchanges, and individual can be used. In process of perfection of the “know-how” of computing means and means of information interchange workplaces can pass from stationary devices to mobile individual to means. With reference to University of Global Problems the workplaces located in all territory of a planet, can be used both professors, and students. The theory of the Distributed Enterprise has been published by the author per 1979-1980 and based on works in the field of the computing systems of high efficiency executed during with 1954 -1966 of year.

The important feature of University of Global Problems is the approach to selection of students and professors at realization of the scheme of training “From above-downwards”: i.e. all over again prepare grandee of the doctor of philosophy (Grand PhD.), then doctors of philosophy (PhD.) and, at last, experts with higher education (M.S.) . It is natural, that at such approach in University the mature experts having experience of independent perfection in the decision of challenges come, first of all, compulsions not requiring methods and necessities for many directions widely to lean on auditorium work. They require consultations, in estimations of the researches by such experts – professors who already participated in the decision of Global Problems and have fundamental formation in many fields of knowledge. At University of Global Problems at use of model of the Distributed Enterprise easily solves a question with creation of scientific, art library. Opportunities of such libraries essentially extend in comparison with usual libraries. Alongside with books, magazines, and newspapers such libraries contain films, art pictures, exhibitions, concerts, operas, quizzes, etc. Easily solve questions of the edition of proceedings, monographs in an electronic kind with opportunities of rather simple transition to usual kinds of a printed matter. If to distract from necessity of physical presence for an audience at the Distributed University there are all opportunities for the organization typical auditorium, with that only a difference, that listeners and professors remain with the workplaces disseminated on all globe. What problems remain not solved? Only when it is required, that the listener of University participated in physical influence on object directly and received response also directly. It is quite obvious, that by preparation of doctors of philosophy and Grand doctors of philosophy is not present necessity for participation of listeners for such experiment.

As preparation of students on degree M.S it is considered within the limits of after high school formation and in this case there is no need to include in the program of preparation experiments with direct influence on object. Certainly behind local universities there is a number of advantages which play the important role in human life. It, first of all, joint residing of students for many years in territory of campus. During study at university the friendly communications kept the next years are established. Students accept active participation in sports meets; participate in various programs of culture, art and entertainments. In view of features of functioning of University of Global Problems, this very useful part of education of human qualities can be kept in the form of carrying out of short-term meetings at carrying out of seminars, conferences, schools, ceremonial meetings of associations of universities, etc. Use of model of the Distributed Enterprise is quite possible and it is useful in conditions of traditional universities. However in case of construction on its basis of university of Global Problems the maximal effect in preparation of experts of the top skills with award of a degree of the doctor of philosophy by it and Grand doctor of philosophy is reached. Unlike usual universities at University of Global Problems preparation of experts of the Global Problems aimed at the decision is spent. For this purpose the professorial structure of University is completed Grand doctors of philosophy, the professors having experience in the decision of Global Problems. The rector (president) of University can be an outstanding scientist who has saved up wide experience in the decision of Global Problems

Scientists of such level during the certain period of a life already have saved up fundamental knowledge in many areas of human activity, including natural, technical, humanitarian knowledge. They possess experience of preparation of doctors of philosophy for the decision of Global Problems. The most important, for many of them their purpose in a life became the decision of a concrete Global Problem in this or that area of ability to live of mankind. Thus, the University of Global Problems is aimed at the decision certain Global Problems, headed by scientists who try to solve this problem, is completed with Grand doctors of philosophy, professors who divide sights of the rector at a problem and to some extent are its pupils. The University of such Type is to a certain extent university of the person, instead of university of collective of persons with various directions and the purposes as it takes place at modern universities. Having the purpose of the decision of a concrete global problem, the professorial structure of University of Global Problems develops the educational activity directed on preparation of doctors of philosophy and grandee of doctors of philosophy with deep fundamental formation in many branches of knowledge in a combination to their simultaneous involving in process of the decision of a concrete global problem. The University of Global Problems to a certain extent on the essence reminds Platon’s academy, certainly in view of modern technologies and the problems facing to a society at the present stage. In structure and ideologies of University of Global Problems are incorporated many useful components which presence allows to hope for reception of fundamental results at the decision of Global Problems.

First of all, the most important is orientation to attraction as heads of universities of outstanding scientists, formations, cultures and the religions, having fundamental formation in many fields of knowledge and possessing experience of the decision of global problems. Important use of the approach to preparation of experts of the top skills under the scheme “From above-downwards” is represented. The Great value is played with orientation to use of model of the Distributed Enterprise (establishment) constructed on principles of system of distributed processing of the information: uniformity of structural elements and structural communications, changeability of structure, parallelism of an exchange and processing of the information. Universities of Global Problems at all are not opposed with modern universities which play, and will play the important role in preparation of experts for decisions of applied and fundamental problems. Universities of Global Problems are the structures focused on the decision of Global Problems, on the orientation they are not crossed with usual universities and do not enter any contradictions with them and with all existing education system. This parallel, narrowly directed education system which, certainly, can enter contacts to other education systems on a mutually advantageous basis.

Use of model of University of Global Problems in an education system allows to receive essential economic benefit. At usual universities the known share of expenses is made with constant expenses for use of buildings and constructions for realization of educational process. For University of Global Problems this clause of charges disappears, as the University represents set of the homogeneous workplaces established in places of residing of students and professors. Workplaces thus are, as a rule, their personal property besides all the working costs connected with use of a telecommunication network, concern to the user of workplaces. Manufacturing of all primary documents, from organizational before scientific works, is carried out on workplaces. The documentation made at University of Global Problems, becomes the electronic documentation (with opportunities its transformations to the usual documentation on workplaces according to wishes of users).

From the resulted brief features of construction of University of Global Problems it is visible, that cost of the basic means basically is defined by cost of workplaces of professorial structure and employees of university, the number of the last is essential less in comparison with usual universities. This most reaches significant effect in decrease in expenses on capital and working costs. Expenses for a payment of employees and workers of university are reduced also. The opportunity of manufacturing of electronic documents (primary) on workplaces forces of professors and listeners leads to reduction of the technicians borrowed by usual writing work. There Is only highly skilled

personnel owning modern computer technologies, for transformation of the primary electronic documentation to the systematized documentation in the form of the scientific, methodical and directory documentation of University of Global Problems.

As is known, the system of the distributed processing of the information, alongside with essential economic benefit, gives sharp increase of productivity with opportunities of its escalating to means of addition of workplaces. In case of University of Global Problems it is necessary to expect sharp increase of productivity (efficiency) not only due to an opportunity of escalating of number of workplaces, but mainly due to a high scientific level of the professorial structure having fundamental preparation in many branches of knowledge and saved up experience in the decision of Global Problems. The distributed structure of University allows involving for preparation of experts of the top skills of a class any outstanding person, wished to participate in educational process irrespective of where its workplace is in territory of our planet. University of Global Problems as the distributed system possesses properties of survivability. In it the separate professorial workplaces, separate student’s workplaces can temporarily be disconnected, and the University will continue to function and provide an opportunity of performance of criterion function, can be at smaller productivity during some period of time. The University of Global Problems is one of the major elements of the Global Education system.

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